Bárta – J. Krejčí - Foreword
Verner – Forty years of Czech excavations at Abusir
Malek andM. Verner - Abusir and Saqqara: problems and priorities
L. Bareš – Th edestruction of the monuments at the
necropolis of Abusir
the end of the Old Kingdom, the status of the Abusir necropolis was reduced to
that of a cemetery of regional significance. The author evaluates the
development that took place at the site from subsequent periods to modern times.
Dvořák- The conservation treatment of a polychrome limestone relief in
thetomb of Hetepi at Abusir
descriptionof the modern conservation measures taken to restore and protect the
newlydiscovered Fourth Dynastytomb of Hetepi at Abusir South. The
conservationfocused mainly on the decorated limestone façade of the chapel.
Jeffreysand A. Tavares - An integrated mapping project for the Saqqara
A report on
anEgypt Exploration Society's project which aims to record all the
visiblearchaeological features in the area of North Saqqara. Permanent
groundmarkers have been set up for present and future expeditions and
referencesystems used in the past have been identified and equated with the
Mathieson- The National Museums of Scotland Saqqara Survey Project
exampleof North Saqqara, the author shows the possibilities offered by
non-invasivemethods of a geophysical survey. Among the features discussed are
Gisrel-Mudir, the access road to the Saqqara necropolis, and others.
Ziegler- Recherches sur Saqqara au musée du Louvre: bilan et perspectives
intoSaqqara material in the Louvre has a long tradition based on the Museum'sown
excavations from the 1850s. In recent years, the Museum's expeditionhas worked
in the area of the tomb of Akhethotep where it has exploredstrata from the Old
and New Kingdoms and the Late and Coptic Periods.
Late, Coptic and Islamic Periods
B. Oerter- Koptische Funde aus Abusir
aimof the study is to reviewCoptic finds (inscribed artifacts,
architecturalelements, pottery, etc.)discovered by the Czech expedition in the
pyramidfield of Abusir. The majorityof the Coptic finds come from the
pyramidtemples of Sahura and Khentkawesand date from the 5th to 10th
Smoláriková- The Greek cemetery in Abusir
focuseson a 4th century BC cemetery discovered in the close vicinity of the
Fifth-Dynastypyramid complexes at Abusir. One of the main reasons for its
establishmentmay have been the cult of Sekhmet in the pyramid complex of Sahura.
Vachala,Fr. Ondráš - An Arabic inscription on the pyramid of Neferefra
discussan Arabic inscription left by 'Umayyir ibn Muslim on the pyramid of
Neferefraat Abusir. The inscription is dated to the 9th and 10th centuries AD.
Second Intermediate Period and the New Kingdom
O. Djuzeva - Das Grab des Generals Ameneminet in
A detailed study of monuments from the as yet unlocated tomb belonging to the
Overseer of the Army, Ameneminet, of the reign of Horemheb. A hypothetical
reconstruction of the original appearance of the tomb is offered.
T. Martin- Memphis: the status of a residence city in the Eighteenth Dynasty
enables us to suggest that the real administrative centre of Egyptduring the
Eighteenth Dynasty was Memphis. Akhetaton and Thebes were mainlysacred cities.
G. Ockinga- The Saqqara tomb of the Overseer of Craftsmen and Chief
A report on
there-examination of the late Eighteenth Dynasty tomb of Amenemone. The
originalpositions of various blocks in museums is discussed. The tomb's
locationin the Teti pyramid cemeterymay have been connected with the cult of
thedeified King Menkauhor.
J. Raven- Twenty-five years of work in the New Kingdom necropolis of
Saqqara:looking for structure
concentrateson patterns inthe spatial distribution of New Kingdom tombs at
Saqqara,based on professions and parentage of individual tomb owners, their
offeringcults, access, internal structure and the architectural arrangements
oftheir tombs. The contribution made by the Leiden Museum towards the solutionof
these problems is evaluated.
Yoshimura,S. Hasegawa - The New Kingdom necropolis at Dahshur - The tomb of
Ipayand its vicinity
Kingdomtombs with numerous burial shafts were discovered at Dahshur North
duringthe recent campaignof Waseda University. One of the tombs may have
belongedto the Royal Butler, Ipay. The architecture and associated finds from
thistomb are discussed.
Yoshimura,I. H. Takamiya - Waseda University excavations at North Saqqara
from1991 to 1999
excavationsof Waseda University expedition on the hill at North Saqqara revealed
importantfinds, especially from the New Kingdom. The most significant are the
remainsof a monument which mayhave been Khaemwaset's 'ka-house'.
Zivie- La resurrectiondes hypogées du Nouvel Empire à Saqqara
Kingdomtombs excavated inthe area of the Bubasteion in the past fifteen yearsare
discussed. The author concentrates on their contribution to our knowledgeof
Memphis during theNew Kingdom. A full bibliography of the French
BubasteionMission is included.
First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom
Daoud –Abusir during the Herakleopolitan Period
from the Herakleopolitan Period discovered at Abusir at the beginning of the20th
century are discussed. The author concentrates on the false doors of Ipy and
Satimpy which are dated according to their stylistic and palaeographic features.
Freed -Observationson thedating and decoration of the tombs of Ihy and Hetep
tombsof Ihy and Hetep, from the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty, show
artists'procedures and their approach to tomb decoration. Ihy's tomb presents
aninteresting case of two artists working on the same monument.
Kahl (witha contribution by M. von Falck) - Die Rolle von Saqqara und Abusir
beider Überlieferung altägyptischer Jenseitsbücher
dealswith passages in the Pyramid and Coffin Texts which are attested both
atSaqqara and Abusir. It is shown that especially during the Middle Kingdomand
the Late Period there were several mechanisms (mainly political, religiousand
regional) which could mediatethe original versions of texts from Saqqaraand
ensure their copying throughout the country.
Magee -Ahmt ntr ofQueen Iput I. Fragments copied by Battiscombe Gunn
froma tomb at Saqqara
monumentsof a Priest of Teti,Seni, and his family are examined. The family
wasassociated with the cultof King Pepy I and Queen Iput I and the monumentsmay
be, on stylistic grounds,dated to the Heracleopolitan Period.
Malek -Old-Kingdomrulers as 'local saints' in the Memphite area during the
dealswith the veneration and 'deification' of rulers of the Old Kingdom in
theMemphite area (Giza, Abusir, Saqqara, Dahshur) during the Middle Kingdom.The
main reasons for the worship of these kings were locally geographical.
P. Silverman- Middle Kingdom tombs in the Teti pyramid cemetery
TwelfthDynasty tombs discovered around Teti's pyramid are discussed. These
tombsbelong to Ihy and Hetep,mortuary priests of King Teti, and to Sekweskhetand
Sahathorimpy. The locationof the tombs is evaluated with respect tothe
professional careers of theirowners.
Old Kingdom and the Early Dynastic Period
Alexanian,S. J. Seidlmayer - Die Nekropole von Dahschur.
This is an
overviewof the history of exploration and study of the Dahshur necropolis
basedon a recent survey. The main development trends during the Old Kingdomare
described and contrasted with the situation in the Middle Kingdom.
Altenmüller- Etapen des Mythos: Vom Ikon zum Epithet, vom Epithet zum Götternamen
'Bettenszene'in Old-Kingdom tombs, the author is able to show that the names of
Osiris,Isis and Nephthys were connected with the embalming workshop which
becamethe names of gods during the Fifth Dynasty. The bed scene functioned asan
icon which facilitated their introduction.
Balík,B. Vachala - The scientific restitution of the Ptahshepses mastaba
atAbusir - an ideal reconstruction
toreconstruct the originalarchitectural appearance of the Fifth Dynastymastaba
of the Vizier Ptahshepsesat Abusir with the help of modern CADcomputer software.
It introduces themain architectural features of thetomb.
Bárta- The early Fourth and early Fifth Dynasties at Abusir South
Fourthand early Fifth Dynasties at Abusir and Saqqara cemeteries are
reconsideredin view of the recent excavations of the Czech mission at Abusir
South(tomb of Ity, the Lake of Abusir tombs and the tomb of Kaaper). The
historyof the cemetery is shown to have been closely connected with the
politicalhistory of the period.
Baud - Lepalais en temple. Le culte funéraire des rois d'Abousir
A study of
theAbusir Archives and other written material suggests that the activitiesin the
temple were organized in the same way as those in the royal (ceremonial)palace.
Also the rangeof mortuary titles was influenced by the functioningof the palace
and soguaranteed the same service for the king in the afterlife.
G. Callender- À propos the title of
Nxn n zAb
meaning ofthe title Nxn n zAb is
reconsidered by research into the title holdersduring the Old Kingdom. It seems
that the title must have implied bothjudicial and administrative duties, at
least during the Sixth Dynasty.
Dobrev -The South SaqqaraStone and the sarcophagus of Queen Mother
CairoJE 65908 was originally made for Queen Ankhesenpepy I, one of four
royalwomen of the Sixth Dynasty called Ankhesenpepy. The title dstj.t-w3d.tandits
meaning are reconsidered.
Goedicke- Abusir - Saqqara - Giza
forestablishing Old-Kingdom necropolises were religious (the cult of Ra),but
also topographical (connection with the royal residence, etc.). Theauthor
discusses several visual links between separate monuments whichwere employed
during their foundation.
Hawass -Recentdiscoveriesin the pyramid complex of Teti at Saqqara
pyramidcomplexes of QueensIput I and Khuit, also the mastaba of Tetiankhkem
wasre-excavated by theteam of the SCA. These excavations have changed
ourknowledge of the layoutand architecture of these monuments. Among
otherthings, the title sAt-nTr
of Iput I and the decoration programme of Khuit'spyramid complex are discussed.
Jánosi- "Im Schatten der Pyramiden" - Die Mastabas in Abusir.
Einige Beobachtungenzum Grabbauder 5. Dynastie
A group of
mid-FifthDynasty mastabas at Abusir is discussed in considerable detail. It is
shownthat there was a close relationship between the position of the
burialchamber and the cult place, and that the architecture of these tombs
reflectedincreasing symbolism during this period.
Krejci -The origins and the development of the royal necropolis at Abusir
duringthe Old Kingdom
discoveries,all previously known archaeological and historical material and
informationon the geomorphological situation in the Abusir necropolis, are used
topresent a new view of thesite's history and development. This
includesthree-dimensional reconstructionswith the help of CAD computer software.
Labrousse- Une épouse du roi Merenre Ier: la reine ÂnkhesenpépyII
foundrelief fragment from the mortuary temple of Queen Ankhesenpepy II
providesevidence for several important titles of royal women: Royal Mother,
RoyalWife, Daughter of the God, etc. The fact that Ankhesenpepy II was not
onlythe wife of Pepy I and mother of Pepy II but also the wife of Merenre
changesour view of the royal familyduring the Sixth Dynasty.
Magdolen- Onthe orientation of the Old-Kingdom royal tombs
dealswith solar methods which may have been used during the pyramids'
orientationto the cardinal points. In this respect he discusses findings of
builders’graffiti from Abusir possibly connected with these methods.
Mysliwiec,K. Kuraszkiewicz - Recent Polish-Egyptian excavations in West
This is a
discussionof the 1996 discovery of the tomb of the Vizier Merefnebef at
Saqqara.The architecture and theunique decoration of the tomb are analyzed.
Thetomb was built in two stageswhich reflected the career of Merefnebef.
Radwan -MastabaXVII at Abusir (First Dynasty): preliminary results and
EarlyDynastic tombs excavated at North Abusir by the Cairo University
ArchaeologicalMission, there is a mastaba which belonged to an Egyptian noble.
Amongother features, the tomb's cult chapel, probably one of the earliest
inancient Egypt, is studied.
Rzepka -Arecarved Old-Kingdom statue. Some observations on the statue of Axj-Jp
statueof Akhi (Cairo MuseumCG 44) is discussed in the context of some
othercomparable sculptures. Itis shown that shortly after its completion
thestatue was altered. It datesfrom the mid-Fourth Dynasty.
Stadelmann- Userkaf in Saqqara und Abusir. Untersuchungen zur Thronfolge in
der4. und frühen 5. Dynastie
archaeological,architectural, topographical and literary data, the author
re-assessesthe chronology of the early Fifth Dynasty. According to the author,
thesun-temples of Userkaf, Sahura and Neferirkara were united in one building.
Strouhal,V. Cerný, L.Vyhnánek - An X-ray examination of the mummyfound in
the pyramidLepsius No. XXIV at Abusir
mummifiedbody of a woman was discovered in Lepsius's pyramid XXIV at Abusir
duringthe winter of 1994-5. The scientific examination of the body revealed
thatshe was a 21-23 year old queen, probably the wife of Nyuserra.
Strouhal,L. Vyhnánek - The identification of the remains of King
Neferefrefound in his pyramid at Abusir
ofKing Neferefre were discovered in his burial chamber during the 1997-98season
of the Czech mission at Abusir. Anthropological examination showsthat the king
died at the age of 20-23 years.
Verner -Newlydiscovered royal sarcophagi from Abusir
sarcophagiof the Fifth Dynasty recently found at Abusir (Khentkawes II,
Neferefra,Lepsius No. XXIV, Ptahshepses,Khamerernebty) are discussed,
especiallythe methods of their manufacture,material and size. It is shown that
Neferirkaraand his successors, includingroyal relatives, had their sarcophagi
madeaccording to a new, uniform, design.
Verner -Whowas Shepseskara, and when did he reign?
recentlyunearthed clay sealings from Abusir allow reconsideration of the
chronologyof the Fifth Dynasty and possible antagonistic tendencies within the
royalfamily. It seems that Neferirkara was succeeded by Neferefra, not by
Shepseskara.Among other things, the alignment of the three Abusir pyramids is