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M. Bárta – J. Krejčí - Foreword

M. Verner – Forty years of Czech excavations at Abusir

J. Malek andM. Verner - Abusir and Saqqara: problems and priorities



L. Bareš – Th edestruction of the monuments at the necropolis of Abusir

Following the end of the Old Kingdom, the status of the Abusir necropolis was reduced to that of a cemetery of regional significance. The author evaluates the development that took place at the site from subsequent periods to modern times.

T. Dvořák- The conservation treatment of a polychrome limestone relief in thetomb of Hetepi at Abusir
A detailed descriptionof the modern conservation measures taken to restore and protect the newlydiscovered Fourth Dynastytomb of Hetepi at Abusir South. The conservationfocused mainly on the decorated limestone façade of the chapel. 

D. Jeffreysand A. Tavares - An integrated mapping project for the Saqqara plateauand escarpment
A report on anEgypt Exploration Society's project which aims to record all the visiblearchaeological features in the area of North Saqqara. Permanent groundmarkers have been set up for present and future expeditions and referencesystems used in the past have been identified and equated with the currentscheme.

I. Mathieson- The National Museums of Scotland Saqqara Survey Project
Using the exampleof North Saqqara, the author shows the possibilities offered by non-invasivemethods of a geophysical survey. Among the features discussed are Gisrel-Mudir, the access road to the Saqqara necropolis, and others.

Ch. Ziegler- Recherches sur Saqqara au musée du Louvre: bilan et perspectives
Research intoSaqqara material in the Louvre has a long tradition based on the Museum'sown excavations from the 1850s. In recent years, the Museum's expeditionhas worked in the area of the tomb of Akhethotep where it has exploredstrata from the Old and New Kingdoms and the Late and Coptic Periods. 


The Late, Coptic and Islamic Periods

W. B. Oerter- Koptische Funde aus Abusir
The main aimof the study is to reviewCoptic finds (inscribed artifacts, architecturalelements, pottery, etc.)discovered by the Czech expedition in the pyramidfield of Abusir. The majorityof the Coptic finds come from the pyramidtemples of Sahura and Khentkawesand date from the 5th to 10th centuriesAD.

K. Smoláriková- The Greek cemetery in Abusir
The article focuseson a 4th century BC cemetery discovered in the close vicinity of the Fifth-Dynastypyramid complexes at Abusir. One of the main reasons for its establishmentmay have been the cult of Sekhmet in the pyramid complex of Sahura.

B. Vachala,Fr. Ondráš - An Arabic inscription on the pyramid of Neferefra
The authors discussan Arabic inscription left by 'Umayyir ibn Muslim on the pyramid of Neferefraat Abusir. The inscription is dated to the 9th and 10th centuries AD. 


The Second Intermediate Period and the New Kingdom

O. Djuzeva - Das Grab des Generals Ameneminet in Sakkara
A detailed study of monuments from the as yet unlocated tomb belonging to the Overseer of the Army, Ameneminet, of the reign of Horemheb. A hypothetical reconstruction of the original appearance of the tomb is offered.

G. T. Martin- Memphis: the status of a residence city in the Eighteenth Dynasty
Prosopographicalevidence enables us to suggest that the real administrative centre of Egyptduring the Eighteenth Dynasty was Memphis. Akhetaton and Thebes were mainlysacred cities.

B. G. Ockinga- The Saqqara tomb of the Overseer of Craftsmen and Chief Goldworker,Amenemone
A report on there-examination of the late Eighteenth Dynasty tomb of Amenemone. The originalpositions of various blocks in museums is discussed. The tomb's locationin the Teti pyramid cemeterymay have been connected with the cult of thedeified King Menkauhor.

M. J. Raven- Twenty-five years of work in the New Kingdom necropolis of Saqqara:looking for structure
This study concentrateson patterns inthe spatial distribution of New Kingdom tombs at Saqqara,based on professions and parentage of individual tomb owners, their offeringcults, access, internal structure and the architectural arrangements oftheir tombs. The contribution made by the Leiden Museum towards the solutionof these problems is evaluated.

S. Yoshimura,S. Hasegawa - The New Kingdom necropolis at Dahshur - The tomb of Ipayand its vicinity
Several New Kingdomtombs with numerous burial shafts were discovered at Dahshur North duringthe recent campaignof Waseda University. One of the tombs may have belongedto the Royal Butler, Ipay. The architecture and associated finds from thistomb are discussed.

S. Yoshimura,I. H. Takamiya - Waseda University excavations at North Saqqara from1991 to 1999
The excavationsof Waseda University expedition on the hill at North Saqqara revealed importantfinds, especially from the New Kingdom. The most significant are the remainsof a monument which mayhave been Khaemwaset's 'ka-house'.

Alain Zivie- La resurrectiondes hypogées du Nouvel Empire à Saqqara
Several New Kingdomtombs excavated inthe area of the Bubasteion in the past fifteen yearsare discussed. The author concentrates on their contribution to our knowledgeof Memphis during theNew Kingdom. A full bibliography of the French BubasteionMission is included.


The First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom

K. A. Daoud –Abusir during the Herakleopolitan Period
Monuments from the Herakleopolitan Period discovered at Abusir at the beginning of the20th century are discussed. The author concentrates on the false doors of Ipy and Satimpy which are dated according to their stylistic and palaeographic features.

R. Freed -Observationson thedating and decoration of the tombs of Ihy and Hetep
The Saqqara tombsof Ihy and Hetep, from the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty, show artists'procedures and their approach to tomb decoration. Ihy's tomb presents aninteresting case of two artists working on the same monument.

J. Kahl (witha contribution by M. von Falck) - Die Rolle von Saqqara und Abusir beider Überlieferung altägyptischer Jenseitsbücher
This study dealswith passages in the Pyramid and Coffin Texts which are attested both atSaqqara and Abusir. It is shown that especially during the Middle Kingdomand the Late Period there were several mechanisms (mainly political, religiousand regional) which could mediatethe original versions of texts from Saqqaraand ensure their copying throughout the country.

D. Magee -Ahmt ntr ofQueen Iput I. Fragments copied by Battiscombe Gunn froma tomb at Saqqara
Several monumentsof a Priest of Teti,Seni, and his family are examined. The family wasassociated with the cultof King Pepy I and Queen Iput I and the monumentsmay be, on stylistic grounds,dated to the Heracleopolitan Period.

J. Malek -Old-Kingdomrulers as 'local saints' in the Memphite area during the Middle Kingdom
The study dealswith the veneration and 'deification' of rulers of the Old Kingdom in theMemphite area (Giza, Abusir, Saqqara, Dahshur) during the Middle Kingdom.The main reasons for the worship of these kings were locally geographical.

D. P. Silverman- Middle Kingdom tombs in the Teti pyramid cemetery
Several TwelfthDynasty tombs discovered around Teti's pyramid are discussed. These tombsbelong to Ihy and Hetep,mortuary priests of King Teti, and to Sekweskhetand Sahathorimpy. The locationof the tombs is evaluated with respect tothe professional careers of theirowners.


The Old Kingdom and the Early Dynastic Period

N. Alexanian,S. J. Seidlmayer - Die Nekropole von Dahschur. Forschungsgeschichteund Perspektiven
This is an overviewof the history of exploration and study of the Dahshur necropolis basedon a recent survey. The main development trends during the Old Kingdomare described and contrasted with the situation in the Middle Kingdom.

H. Altenmüller- Etapen des Mythos: Vom Ikon zum Epithet, vom Epithet zum Götternamen
From the 'Bettenszene'in Old-Kingdom tombs, the author is able to show that the names of Osiris,Isis and Nephthys were connected with the embalming workshop which becamethe names of gods during the Fifth Dynasty. The bed scene functioned asan icon which facilitated their introduction.

M. Balík,B. Vachala - The scientific restitution of the Ptahshepses mastaba atAbusir - an ideal reconstruction
An attempt toreconstruct the originalarchitectural appearance of the Fifth Dynastymastaba of the Vizier Ptahshepsesat Abusir with the help of modern CADcomputer software. It introduces themain architectural features of thetomb.

M. Bárta- The early Fourth and early Fifth Dynasties at Abusir South
The early Fourthand early Fifth Dynasties at Abusir and Saqqara cemeteries are reconsideredin view of the recent excavations of the Czech mission at Abusir South(tomb of Ity, the Lake of Abusir tombs and the tomb of Kaaper). The historyof the cemetery is shown to have been closely connected with the politicalhistory of the period.

M. Baud - Lepalais en temple. Le culte funéraire des rois d'Abousir
A study of theAbusir Archives and other written material suggests that the activitiesin the temple were organized in the same way as those in the royal (ceremonial)palace. Also the rangeof mortuary titles was influenced by the functioningof the palace and soguaranteed the same service for the king in the afterlife.

V. G. Callender- À propos the title of Nxn n zAb

The meaning ofthe title Nxn n zAb is reconsidered by research into the title holdersduring the Old Kingdom. It seems that the title must have implied bothjudicial and administrative duties, at least during the Sixth Dynasty.

V. Dobrev -The South SaqqaraStone and the sarcophagus of Queen Mother Ankhesenpepy(JE 65908)
Sarcophagus CairoJE 65908 was originally made for Queen Ankhesenpepy I, one of four royalwomen of the Sixth Dynasty called Ankhesenpepy. The title dstj.t-w3d.tandits meaning are reconsidered.

H. Goedicke- Abusir - Saqqara - Giza
The reasons forestablishing Old-Kingdom necropolises were religious (the cult of Ra),but also topographical (connection with the royal residence, etc.). Theauthor discusses several visual links between separate monuments whichwere employed during their foundation.

Z. Hawass -Recentdiscoveriesin the pyramid complex of Teti at Saqqara
Beside the pyramidcomplexes of QueensIput I and Khuit, also the mastaba of Tetiankhkem wasre-excavated by theteam of the SCA. These excavations have changed ourknowledge of the layoutand architecture of these monuments. Among otherthings, the title
sAt-nTr of Iput I and the decoration programme of Khuit'spyramid complex are discussed.

P. Jánosi- "Im Schatten der Pyramiden" - Die Mastabas in Abusir. Einige Beobachtungenzum Grabbauder 5. Dynastie
A group of mid-FifthDynasty mastabas at Abusir is discussed in considerable detail. It is shownthat there was a close relationship between the position of the burialchamber and the cult place, and that the architecture of these tombs reflectedincreasing symbolism during this period.

J. Krejci -The origins and the development of the royal necropolis at Abusir duringthe Old Kingdom
Recent discoveries,all previously known archaeological and historical material and informationon the geomorphological situation in the Abusir necropolis, are used topresent a new view of thesite's history and development. This includesthree-dimensional reconstructionswith the help of CAD computer software.

A. Labrousse- Une épouse du roi Merenre Ier: la reine ÂnkhesenpépyII
A recently foundrelief fragment from the mortuary temple of Queen Ankhesenpepy II providesevidence for several important titles of royal women: Royal Mother, RoyalWife, Daughter of the God, etc. The fact that Ankhesenpepy II was not onlythe wife of Pepy I and mother of Pepy II but also the wife of Merenre changesour view of the royal familyduring the Sixth Dynasty.

D. Magdolen-  Onthe orientation of the Old-Kingdom royal tombs
The author dealswith solar methods which may have been used during the pyramids' orientationto the cardinal points. In this respect he discusses findings of builders’graffiti from Abusir possibly connected with these methods.

K. Mysliwiec,K. Kuraszkiewicz - Recent Polish-Egyptian excavations in West Saqqara
This is a discussionof the 1996 discovery of the tomb of the Vizier Merefnebef at Saqqara.The architecture and theunique decoration of the tomb are analyzed. Thetomb was built in two stageswhich reflected the career of Merefnebef.

A. Radwan -MastabaXVII at Abusir (First Dynasty): preliminary results and general remarks
Among the EarlyDynastic tombs excavated at North Abusir by the Cairo University ArchaeologicalMission, there is a mastaba which belonged to an Egyptian noble. Amongother features, the tomb's cult chapel, probably one of the earliest inancient Egypt, is studied.

S. Rzepka -Arecarved Old-Kingdom statue. Some observations on the statue of Axj-Jp (CG44)
The group statueof Akhi (Cairo MuseumCG 44) is discussed in the context of some othercomparable sculptures. Itis shown that shortly after its completion thestatue was altered. It datesfrom the mid-Fourth Dynasty.

R. Stadelmann- Userkaf in Saqqara und Abusir. Untersuchungen zur Thronfolge in der4. und frühen 5. Dynastie
Using archaeological,architectural, topographical and literary data, the author re-assessesthe chronology of the early Fifth Dynasty. According to the author, thesun-temples of Userkaf, Sahura and Neferirkara were united in one building.

E. Strouhal,V. Cerný, L.Vyhnánek - An X-ray examination of the mummyfound in the pyramidLepsius No. XXIV at Abusir
The mummifiedbody of a woman was discovered in Lepsius's pyramid XXIV at Abusir duringthe winter of 1994-5. The scientific examination of the body revealed thatshe was a 21-23 year old queen, probably the wife of Nyuserra.

E. Strouhal,L. Vyhnánek - The identification of the remains of King Neferefrefound in his pyramid at Abusir
The remains ofKing Neferefre were discovered in his burial chamber during the 1997-98season of the Czech mission at Abusir. Anthropological examination showsthat the king died at the age of 20-23 years.

M. Verner -Newlydiscovered royal sarcophagi from Abusir
Royal sarcophagiof the Fifth Dynasty recently found at Abusir (Khentkawes II, Neferefra,Lepsius No. XXIV, Ptahshepses,Khamerernebty) are discussed, especiallythe methods of their manufacture,material and size. It is shown that Neferirkaraand his successors, includingroyal relatives, had their sarcophagi madeaccording to a new, uniform, design.

M. Verner -Whowas Shepseskara, and when did he reign?
The recentlyunearthed clay sealings from Abusir allow reconsideration of the chronologyof the Fifth Dynasty and possible antagonistic tendencies within the royalfamily. It seems that Neferirkara was succeeded by Neferefra, not by Shepseskara.Among other things, the alignment of the three Abusir pyramids is considered.